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Asian Development Bank

100 Climate Actions from Cities in Asia and the Pacific


Mumbai is developing a modern and safe metro rail system in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector, as well as improve air pollution and traffic congestion.

The Metro Rail System is currently being developed in Mumbai, which has the most crowded public transportation system in the world. The first of 12 metro lines was completed in 2014, with more due to be finalized in 2022. The new metro will employ trains using regenerative braking to reduce energy consumption by enabling the vehicle’s kinetic energy to be converted back to electrical energy as well as modern signaling systems that employ communications-based train control technology.


Safety and inclusion measures are also being introduced. Safety measures include surveillance systems, door closing and train obstacle detectors, and platforms with automatic doors. Inclusion measures include women-only carriages, mobile applications for women’s security, separate women’s ticket counters, reporting desks to address incidents of harassment, and priority e-ticket counters for elderly and disabled passengers.

The project marks ADB’s first co-financing with the Shanghai-based New Development Bank, which will provide $260 million towards the project. ADB will provide $926 million towards the project.

Once the new metro is fully operational, it is estimated to have 2 million passengers a day (photo by Mumbai Metropolitan Development Authority).

The Challenge

Overcrowding and severe safety problems in Mumbai have led to over 3,000 fatalities per year and has left many commuters to rely on private transport options emphasizing the need for a new modern rail system.


Social To further emphasize the metro’s inclusion measures, a station staffed only by women will be established.

Health To prevent passengers from falling onto the tracks due to overcrowding, platforms will have automatic doors that are synchronized with trains.